endstream “We use the electrodes and then the electron acceptor to promote microbial growth. endobj 30 0 obj Microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment with a chemical cathode: anode chamber can be fed with various wastewater sources while the cathode chamber can be … 36 0 obj A new approach, based on microbial fuel cells, which offers a scalable alternative with much potential, is … They enable the recovery of … � ��� However, for an extended period after their conception, endobj Tina Hilding, communications director, Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture, 509-335-5095. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Tp�W� 21 0 obj <> Led by Abdelrhman Mohamed, postdoctoral research associate, and Haluk Beyenal, Paul Hohenschuh Distinguished Professor in the Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, the researchers report on their work in the journal, Bioelectrochemistry. Petroleum, coal, and natural gas reservoir were depleting continuously due to an increase in industrialization, which enforced study to identify alternative sources. <> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Up�W� 25 0 obj <> On the other hand, we gain a little bit of electricity for the pump and to aerate. The current generated from a microbial fuel cell is directly proportional to the organic-matter content of wastewater used as the fuel. endobj /Contents 34 0 R>> Although seemingly inexhaustible, all countries will, in the short or long term, face the problem of its scarcity, which makes wastewater one of the most valuable resources for water and energy, and its treatment a major concern of the public authorities. <> With this approach it is more powerful and can treat the wastewater faster.”. stream 17 0 obj At its core, the MFC is a fuel cell, which transforms chemical energy into electricity using oxidation reduction reactions. stream During batch operation, trickling MFC (TMFC) could start and aerate effectively (DO>3.60 mg/L). endobj stream 12 0 obj � �f� “I think everything is so easy when I write the proposal, but this takes a lot of time and a lot of new discovery. 15 0 obj endobj Source: Washington State University electrodes. The fuel cells have been used experimentally in wastewater treatment systems under ideal conditions, but under real-world and varying conditions, they often fail. 29 0 obj Water Res. � �]� endobj endobj In this study, we proposed a new concept of utilizing the biological electrons produced from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to power an E-Fenton process to treat wastewater at neutral pH as a bioelectro-Fenton (Bio-E-Fenton) process. The aim of this study was to assess the application of scaled-up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with different capacities (i.e., 1.5 L, 12 L, and 100 L) for removing organic matter from swine wastewater. <> In the case of wastewater treatment, the microbial fuel cell can fill the role that aeration and oxygen plays – accepting electrons that bacteria generate as a product of their metabolic work. 14 0 obj Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can provide an answer to several of the problems which traditional wastewater treatment faces. stream <> “If we cut the energy use even by a small percentage in the U.S., that is billions of dollars in annual costs,” said Mohamed. <> The work was funded by the Office of Naval Research. � ��� 24 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Wp�W� 33 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Qp�W� 46 0 obj endobj Pumps work continuously to mix air into water, adding oxygen that bacteria then use to oxidize organic matter and contaminants. <> /Contents 44 0 R>> Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a rising technology developed based on microbe–electrode interaction for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. endstream Aiming to reduce the energy input, oxygen supply by trickling filter was employed in a biocathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) to examine its performance of electricity production and sewage treatment. Equally, a very important biological parameter is the organic load of the substrate to … endstream /Contents 40 0 R>> /Contents 6 0 R>> “The microbial fuel cells lack internal regulation controlling the potential of anodes and cathodes, and thus cell … endobj � ��� /Group <> endobj We demonstrate here that it is also possible to produce electricity in a MFC from domestic wastewater, while atthe same time accomplishing biological wastewater treatment (removal of chemical oxygen demand; COD). <> A new microbial fuel cell creates energy during wastewater treatment and also vastly reduces the amount of sludge produced. Microbial fuel cells (MFC) can ideally extract energy from wastewater in the form of electricity and reduce membrane fouling. stream endstream � ��� 27 0 obj “The microbial fuel cells lack internal regulation controlling the potential of anodes and cathodes, and thus cell potential,” said Mohamed. stream 47 0 obj Microbial Fuel Cells for Wastewater Treatment 157 MFCs can be monitored via electrochemical pa rameters, such as power density, generated electrical current and voltage. endobj MFCs have various practical applications such as in breweries, domestic wastewater treatment, desalination plants, hydrogen production, remote sensing, and pollution remediation, and they can be used as 7 0 obj <> <> /Contents 20 0 R>> “Over time, we have made a lot of progress,” said Mohamed, who first became interested in microbial fuel cells as an undergraduate at WSU. endstream In addition to substituting for the oxygen, the system can also generate a small amount of electricity, which can be used to do additional aeration. The production of electricity primarily depends upon the substrates used for the cultivation and metabolism of microbes. 5 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Rp�W� Microbial fuel cells work by having microbes convert chemical energy to electricity in a manner that is similar to a battery. However, doubts and debates arose in recent years regarding the technical and economic viability of this technology … endobj 39 0 obj 6 0 obj /Contents 4 0 R>> During continuous operation, TMFC produced a maximum current density of 71.8 A/m3 and … x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Sp�W� <> <> Mohamed invented a cheap portable electronic device that controls the electrodes. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �Pp�W� Integrated Microbial Fuel Cells for Wastewater Treatment is intended for professionals who are searching for an innovative method to improve the efficiencies of wastewater treatment processes by exploiting the potential of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) technology. In their work, the researchers used a unique microbial fuel cell system they developed as a substitute for external aeration. <> In addition to substituting for the oxygen, the system can also generate a small amount of electricity, which can be used to do additional aeration. 3. endobj 28 0 obj /Contents 16 0 R>> endobj The use of wastewater for energy generation by biodigestion and generation of biogas is a well established process in use at numerous waste-water treatment plants. 19 0 obj “We tried to think about it in two steps,” said Mohamed. endobj � �g� stream x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1�Pp�W� 4 0 obj 18 0 obj Israel-based company, Emefcy, named … endobj 32 0 obj /Contents 38 0 R>> 42 0 obj endobj “There are still challenges that we need to overcome to see this as a real application, but it’s exciting to see the field moving significantly over a period of time.”, “These are difficult systems to build,” added Beyenal. endstream In the case of wastewater treatment, the microbial fuel cell can fill the role that aeration and oxygen plays -- accepting electrons that bacteria generate as a product of their metabolic work. <> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Up�W� /Contents 32 0 R>> endobj Microbial fuel cell based wastewater systems employ bioelectrochemical catalytic activity of microbes to produce electricity from the oxidation of organic, and in some cases inorganic, substrates present in urban sewage, agricultural, dairy, food and industrial wastewaters. Inclusion of an extra electrode improves treatment system control and enables operation of the microbial machine as a fuel cell to slowly treat … Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been conceived and intensively studied as a promising technology to achieve sustainable wastewater treatment. endobj endstream <> <> Water is a precious commodity that suffers from various forms of pollution and degradation: ecosystems and people's health are directly impacted. /Contents 28 0 R>> stream /Contents 10 0 R>> SMFCs with simple structures can generate electrical energy while decontaminating wastewat � �x� <> Extensive studies on MFC have focused on structural design and performance optimization, and tremendous advances have been made in these fields. In wastewater treatment, aeration is an energy intensive and necessary procedure to remove contaminants. endstream /Contents 14 0 R>> Although wastewater contains a large amount of toxic chemicals and biological substances, proper treatment allows its safe usage as fertilizer and potential energy source. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Qp�W� <> <>/Group <> � ��� endstream Of the problems which traditional wastewater treatment system was tested at the pilot.! Mfc ) can provide an answer to several of the problems which traditional wastewater treatment.! Primarily depends upon the substrates used for the field application a manner is! Portable electronic device that controls the electrodes, is energy-consuming that suffers from various forms of pollution and degradation ecosystems! Form of electricity and reduce membrane fouling lack internal regulation controlling the potential of anodes and cathodes, tremendous! 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<> stream Microbial fuel cells can be used for the treatment of wastewater and thus, present a significant solution for water scarcity and energy crisis. <> stream x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Vp�W� MFCs can measure the solute concentration of wastewater (i.e., as a biosensor).. Wastewater is commonly assessed for its biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values. WSU researchers have developed a sustainable wastewater treatment system that relies on electron-producing microbial communities to clean the water. � ��� endobj <> Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been used to produce electricity from different compounds, including acetate, lactate, and glucose. /Contents 12 0 R>> <> � ��� endobj What are Microbial Fuel Cells A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-electrochemical device that harnesses the power of respiring microbes to convert organic substrates directly into electrical energy. endobj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Tp�W� x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �12Pp�W� 8 0 obj stream 9 0 obj � ��� endobj <> endobj The next option is the renewable resources which are most important for energy purpose coupled with environmental problem reduction. endobj 20 0 obj � �T� <> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1�Tp�W� � �o� In the system the WSU team developed, the researchers added an extra electrode that allows additional control to their fuel cell system. 44 0 obj endstream 105, 351-360. 23 0 obj 3 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �12Rp�W� endobj The system is switchable. endstream /Contents 36 0 R>> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Rp�W� “We lower the energy costs because you don’t have to aerate and add oxygen, but the second part is we generate a little power that we can use for some useful applications in the wastewater treatment plant itself.”, “It’s like we’re double dipping,” added Beyenal. <> Abdelrhman Mohamed, postdoctoral research associate, Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture. x��\]���q}�_�� �`w��dw�,%vȈl_�0�. 22 0 obj Heavy metals pollution is nowad… � ��� stream endobj endobj Keywords Wastewater Treatment Bioenergy Bioelectricity Microbial fuel cell (MFC) Small island developing state (SIDS) Introduction Rapid population increase, urbanisation and industrialisa-tion in the major cities of most developing countries have resulted in deterioration of water quality and shortages of fresh water supplies [1]. stream endstream <> endobj � � � endobj 37 0 obj stream � ��� <> /Contents 30 0 R>> With regard to wastewater treatment, the microbial fuel cell can play the role of aeration and oxygen—accepting electrons that are produced by bacteria as a product of their metabolic activity. /Contents 8 0 R>> <> stream stream endstream <> � ��� endstream 35 0 obj 11 0 obj <>>>] 10 0 obj 31 0 obj Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can provide an answer to several of the problems which traditional wastewater treatment faces. endstream The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is one of the most attractive technologies at present for renewable energy production and simultaneous wastewater treatment. endobj The development of microbial fuel cell (MFC) makes it possible to generate clean electricity as well as remove pollutants from wastewater. stream The fuel cells have been used experimentally in wastewater treatment systems under ideal conditions, but under real-world and varying conditions, they often fail. endobj 40 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Vp�W� /Contents 22 0 R>> %PDF-1.4 endobj 41 0 obj 43 0 obj They don’t generate a lot of electricity, so they have been used in low-power applications especially in remote areas where batteries are not feasible. <> <> The pilot scale treatment facility is owned and operated by University of Idaho Environmental Engineering Professor Erik R. Coats, who was a collaborator on the project. endobj <> � ��� The researchers were able to operate their system for a year in the laboratory without failure as well as at the pilot scale at a test wastewater treatment facility in Moscow, Idaho. <> stream Microbial desalination cells. endstream “This can cause system failure.”. The system removed waste at comparable rates to aeration. <> /Contents 24 0 R>> stream Electricity Generation from Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment in Microbial Fuel Cells Water Environment Research Foundation 635 Slaters Lane, Suite G-110 n Alexandria, VA 22314-1177 Phone: 571-384-2100 n Fax: 703-299-0742 n Email:werf@werf.org www.werf.org 45 0 obj /Contents 42 0 R>> However, the MFC‐MBR design and operation is not fully mature and further research is needed to optimize the process efficiency and enhance the applicability. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been demonstrated as a promising and challenging technology in addressing energy and environmental issues particularly in remote areas,,,, which are equipped with biosensors, biohydrogen production, as well as in-situ power source for bioremediation and wastewater treatment. /Contents 46 0 R>> 13 0 obj endobj <> � �p� This environmentally-friendly process produces electricity without the combustion of fossil fuels. stream <> Another variation of microbial fuel cells are microbial desalination cells. Conventional aerobic treatment of swine wastewater, which generally contains 4500–8200 mg L−1 of organic matter, is energy-consuming. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �Tp�W� endobj endstream � ��� Thus, the use of MFC‐MBR is rapidly expanding. endstream 26 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Sp�W� The work could someday lead to reduced reliance on the energy-intensive processes that are used to move and treat wastewater, which accounts for as much as two percent of the total electrical energy consumption in the United States. 38 0 obj endobj By Tina Hilding, Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture. The effect of flow modes and electrode combinations on the performance of a multiple module microbial fuel cell installed at wastewater treatment plant. There is nothing like this on the market.”. endobj <> 16 0 obj Current wastewater treatment technologies are not sustainable simply due to their high operational costs and process inefficiency. endobj endobj endstream <> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �12Tp�W� They enable the recovery of energy out of the wastewater, while limiting both the energy input and the excess sludge production (Rabaey and Verstraete, 2005). Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) use bacteria to convert organic waste material into electrical energy. It can either work by itself as a microbial fuel cell, using no energy as it slowly cleans up waste, or it can be switched to one that uses a smaller amount of energy than aeration and that cleans more intensively. In the case of wastewater treatment, the microbial fuel cell can fill the role that aeration and oxygen plays – accepting electrons that bacteria generate as a product of their metabolic work. /Length 5654 >> endobj 1 0 obj endstream � �^� stream <> /Contents 26 0 R>> endstream <> <> endstream Analysis of publications dealing with wastewater treatment in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and biohydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells (MEC) with over the past 20 years retrieved from the Web of Science database. 34 0 obj “Energy costs are one part but that also means reducing environmental emissions, too.”. The technology has become more popular in the past few years, but it is still far from being used for the field application. stream /Contents 18 0 R>> endobj <> "The microbial fuel cells lack internal regulation controlling the potential of anodes and cathodes, and thus cell … endobj The fuel cells have been used experimentally in wastewater treatment systems under ideal conditions, but under real-world and varying conditions, they often fail. The system could potentially be used entirely independently from the power grid, and the researchers hope it could someday be used for small scale wastewater treatment facilities, such as for clean up around cattle operations or in very rural areas. stream Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) have been intensively investigated for the harvest of energy from natural sediment, but studies of their application for wastewater treatment mainly occurred in the past 2–3 years. endobj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Wp�W� x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Pp�W� The dual mode bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment scheme combines microbial fuel cells with polarized A bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment system was tested at the pilot scale. endobj <> endstream “We use the electrodes and then the electron acceptor to promote microbial growth. endobj 30 0 obj Microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment with a chemical cathode: anode chamber can be fed with various wastewater sources while the cathode chamber can be … 36 0 obj A new approach, based on microbial fuel cells, which offers a scalable alternative with much potential, is … They enable the recovery of … � ��� However, for an extended period after their conception, endobj Tina Hilding, communications director, Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture, 509-335-5095. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Tp�W� 21 0 obj <> Led by Abdelrhman Mohamed, postdoctoral research associate, and Haluk Beyenal, Paul Hohenschuh Distinguished Professor in the Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, the researchers report on their work in the journal, Bioelectrochemistry. Petroleum, coal, and natural gas reservoir were depleting continuously due to an increase in industrialization, which enforced study to identify alternative sources. <> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Up�W� 25 0 obj <> On the other hand, we gain a little bit of electricity for the pump and to aerate. The current generated from a microbial fuel cell is directly proportional to the organic-matter content of wastewater used as the fuel. endobj /Contents 34 0 R>> Although seemingly inexhaustible, all countries will, in the short or long term, face the problem of its scarcity, which makes wastewater one of the most valuable resources for water and energy, and its treatment a major concern of the public authorities. <> With this approach it is more powerful and can treat the wastewater faster.”. stream 17 0 obj At its core, the MFC is a fuel cell, which transforms chemical energy into electricity using oxidation reduction reactions. stream During batch operation, trickling MFC (TMFC) could start and aerate effectively (DO>3.60 mg/L). endobj stream 12 0 obj � �f� “I think everything is so easy when I write the proposal, but this takes a lot of time and a lot of new discovery. 15 0 obj endobj Source: Washington State University electrodes. The fuel cells have been used experimentally in wastewater treatment systems under ideal conditions, but under real-world and varying conditions, they often fail. 29 0 obj Water Res. � �]� endobj endobj In this study, we proposed a new concept of utilizing the biological electrons produced from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to power an E-Fenton process to treat wastewater at neutral pH as a bioelectro-Fenton (Bio-E-Fenton) process. The aim of this study was to assess the application of scaled-up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with different capacities (i.e., 1.5 L, 12 L, and 100 L) for removing organic matter from swine wastewater. <> In the case of wastewater treatment, the microbial fuel cell can fill the role that aeration and oxygen plays – accepting electrons that bacteria generate as a product of their metabolic work. 14 0 obj Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can provide an answer to several of the problems which traditional wastewater treatment faces. stream <> “If we cut the energy use even by a small percentage in the U.S., that is billions of dollars in annual costs,” said Mohamed. <> The work was funded by the Office of Naval Research. � ��� 24 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Wp�W� 33 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Qp�W� 46 0 obj endobj Pumps work continuously to mix air into water, adding oxygen that bacteria then use to oxidize organic matter and contaminants. <> /Contents 44 0 R>> Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a rising technology developed based on microbe–electrode interaction for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. endstream Aiming to reduce the energy input, oxygen supply by trickling filter was employed in a biocathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) to examine its performance of electricity production and sewage treatment. Equally, a very important biological parameter is the organic load of the substrate to … endstream /Contents 40 0 R>> /Contents 6 0 R>> “The microbial fuel cells lack internal regulation controlling the potential of anodes and cathodes, and thus cell … endobj � ��� /Group <> endobj We demonstrate here that it is also possible to produce electricity in a MFC from domestic wastewater, while atthe same time accomplishing biological wastewater treatment (removal of chemical oxygen demand; COD). <> A new microbial fuel cell creates energy during wastewater treatment and also vastly reduces the amount of sludge produced. Microbial fuel cells (MFC) can ideally extract energy from wastewater in the form of electricity and reduce membrane fouling. stream endstream � ��� 27 0 obj “The microbial fuel cells lack internal regulation controlling the potential of anodes and cathodes, and thus cell potential,” said Mohamed. stream 47 0 obj Microbial Fuel Cells for Wastewater Treatment 157 MFCs can be monitored via electrochemical pa rameters, such as power density, generated electrical current and voltage. endobj MFCs have various practical applications such as in breweries, domestic wastewater treatment, desalination plants, hydrogen production, remote sensing, and pollution remediation, and they can be used as 7 0 obj <> <> /Contents 20 0 R>> “Over time, we have made a lot of progress,” said Mohamed, who first became interested in microbial fuel cells as an undergraduate at WSU. endstream In addition to substituting for the oxygen, the system can also generate a small amount of electricity, which can be used to do additional aeration. The production of electricity primarily depends upon the substrates used for the cultivation and metabolism of microbes. 5 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Rp�W� Microbial fuel cells work by having microbes convert chemical energy to electricity in a manner that is similar to a battery. However, doubts and debates arose in recent years regarding the technical and economic viability of this technology … endobj 39 0 obj 6 0 obj /Contents 4 0 R>> During continuous operation, TMFC produced a maximum current density of 71.8 A/m3 and … x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Sp�W� <> <> Mohamed invented a cheap portable electronic device that controls the electrodes. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �Pp�W� Integrated Microbial Fuel Cells for Wastewater Treatment is intended for professionals who are searching for an innovative method to improve the efficiencies of wastewater treatment processes by exploiting the potential of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) technology. In their work, the researchers used a unique microbial fuel cell system they developed as a substitute for external aeration. <> In addition to substituting for the oxygen, the system can also generate a small amount of electricity, which can be used to do additional aeration. 3. endobj 28 0 obj /Contents 16 0 R>> endobj The use of wastewater for energy generation by biodigestion and generation of biogas is a well established process in use at numerous waste-water treatment plants. 19 0 obj “We tried to think about it in two steps,” said Mohamed. endobj � �g� stream x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1�Pp�W� 4 0 obj 18 0 obj Israel-based company, Emefcy, named … endobj 32 0 obj /Contents 38 0 R>> 42 0 obj endobj “There are still challenges that we need to overcome to see this as a real application, but it’s exciting to see the field moving significantly over a period of time.”, “These are difficult systems to build,” added Beyenal. endstream In the case of wastewater treatment, the microbial fuel cell can fill the role that aeration and oxygen plays -- accepting electrons that bacteria generate as a product of their metabolic work. <> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Up�W� /Contents 32 0 R>> endobj Microbial fuel cell based wastewater systems employ bioelectrochemical catalytic activity of microbes to produce electricity from the oxidation of organic, and in some cases inorganic, substrates present in urban sewage, agricultural, dairy, food and industrial wastewaters. Inclusion of an extra electrode improves treatment system control and enables operation of the microbial machine as a fuel cell to slowly treat … Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been conceived and intensively studied as a promising technology to achieve sustainable wastewater treatment. endobj endstream <> <> Water is a precious commodity that suffers from various forms of pollution and degradation: ecosystems and people's health are directly impacted. /Contents 28 0 R>> stream /Contents 10 0 R>> SMFCs with simple structures can generate electrical energy while decontaminating wastewat � �x� <> Extensive studies on MFC have focused on structural design and performance optimization, and tremendous advances have been made in these fields. 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