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C) Sigmund Freud. When he was ten the family moved to the university city of Halle. Also, though every culture has its unique Soul and is in essence a special and separate entity, the development of the life cycle is paralleled in all of them: For each phase of the cycle in a given Culture, and for all great events affecting its course, there is a counterpart in the history of every other culture. From The Journal of Historical Review, March-April 1998 (Vol. Prussianism and Socialism did not meet with a favorable reaction from the critics or the public -- eager though the public had been, at first, to learn his views. The advent of the Caesars marks the return of Authority and Duty, of Honor and "Blood," and the end of democracy. Yet Spengler did not counsel any kind of sighing resignation to fate, or blithe acceptance of coming defeat and death. Arnold Toynbee also created his own model by increasing the cycle year in Spengler’s model. Spengler proved totally ineffective in practical politics. He taught mathematics, physical sciences, history, and German literature, and by all accounts was a good and conscientious instructor. Recorded history gives us eight such "high cultures": the Indian, the Babylonian, the Egyptian, the Chinese, the Mexican (Mayan-Aztec), the Arabian (or "Magian"), the Classical (Greece and Rome), and the European-Western. The death of a Culture may in fact be played out over hundreds of years, or it may occur instantaneously because of outer forces -- as in the sudden end of the Mexican Culture. He held that civilizations, like biological organisms, pass through a determinable life cycle and that the modern West was approaching the end of such a cycle. "Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art and their relation to his cyclical theory of history. The beginning of decline and decay in a Culture is the transition point between its "culture" phase and the "civilization" phase that inevitably follows. This data will be updated every 24 hours. The young Oswald never enjoyed the best of health, and suffered from migraine headaches that were to plague him all his life. Spengler, Oswald. There are easier books to read than Decline -- there are also harder -- but a big reason for its unprecedented (for such a work) popular success was the same reason for its by-and-large dismissal by the learned critics: its style. 2018. } This was not the Marxist-materialist abomination, he said, but essentially the same thing as Prussianism: a socialism of the German community, based on its unique work ethic, discipline, and organic rank instead of "money." Anyway, with regard to the validity of his postulate of rapid Western decline, the contemporary Spenglerian need only say to these critics: Look about you. New York: Brookdale Press, 1972. 1) & 1928 (vol. It was approved, and Spengler received his teaching certificate. Finally, but after it had already achieved a wide circulation, the authorities prohibited the book's further distribution. Feature Flags last update: Fri Jan 01 2021 15:17:19 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Then he moved to Düsseldorf and, finally, Hamburg. Originally to be titled Conservative and Liberal, it was planned as an exposition and explanation of the current trends in Europe -- an accelerating arms race, Entente "encirclement" of Germany, a succession of international crises, increasing polarity of the nations -- and where they were leading. However, he passed a second examination in 1904, and then set to writing the secondary dissertation necessary to qualify as a high school teacher. Cyclical history started with Ibn Haldun in the scientific sense. His doctoral dissertation at Halle was on Heraclitus, the "dark philosopher" of ancient Greece whose most memorable line was "War is the Father of all things." The years 1920-23 saw Spengler retreat into a preoccupation with the revision of the first volume of Decline, and the completion of the second. He suffered imperfect health, and was a lifelong sufferer of migraine h… His mother's side of the family was quite artistically bent. With this arrives the "imperialistic" stage of civilization, in which the Caesars with their bands of followers battle each other for control of the earth. Each High Culture has as a distinguishing feature a "prime symbol." Spengler, Oswald. He began the writing of a book of observations on contemporary politics whose idea had preoccupied him for some time. The Saecul… Age of Faith. (Spengler and Toynbee’s Cyclical theory of Social change) December 21, 2019 November 9, 2019 by Rajendra Singh. His main task as he saw it, however, was a grand and all-encompassing work on his metaphysics -- of which Decline had only given hints. He began it by stating that no one could have looked forward to the National Socialist revolution with greater longing than he. He was particularly concerned that he had left an important gap in his great work -- that of the pre-history of man. Needless to say, such a theory -- though somewhat heralded in the work of Giambattista Vico and the 19th-century Russian Nikolai Danilevsky, as well as in Nietzsche -- was destined to shake the foundations of the intellectual and semi-intellectual world. (1922), he wrote that the men of the West must still be men, and do all they could to realize the immense possibilities still open to them. Untergang des Abendlandes, 1918. It did so in short order, partly owing to its felicitous timing, and partly to the brilliance (though not unflawed) with which Spengler presented it. Scorning the type of "learnedness" that demanded only cautionary and judicious statements -- every one backed by a footnote -- Spengler gave freewheeling vent to his opinions and judgments. He did occasionally give lectures, and wrote some essays, only a few of which have survived. "clr": false, Toynbee and the Cyclical Pattern of History Abstract There has been recently a return on the part of some writers to the Greek theory that the course of history follows a cyclical pattern. Hence the "contemporaneousness" of all high cultures. This is accomplished by using a simple cyclical model of the development of civilizations. Der Untergang is a study in the philosophy of history. Spengler, Oswald. He tried his hand at some youthful artistic creations of his own, a few of which have survived -- they are indicative of a tremendous enthusiasm but not much else. However, Polybius, Ibn Khaldun (see Asabiyyah), and Giambattista Vico can be seen as precursors of this analysis. These Cultures are in reality super life-forms, that is, they are organic in nature, and like all organisms must pass through the phases of birth-life-death. From these come the subhuman "fellaheen" -- fitting participants in the dying-out of a culture. Noontide Press, 1962. If you should have access and can't see this content please. His early appraisal of a corporation for which the State would have directional control but not ownership of or direct responsibility for the various private segments of the economy sounded much like Werner Sombart's later favorable review of National Socialist economics in his A New Social Philosophy [Princeton Univ. Spengler, as the title of his work suggests, saw the West as doomed to the same eventual extinction that all the other High Cultures had faced. Oswald Spengler: An Introduction to his Life and Ideas. Categories: 2. Query parameters: { Render date: 2021-01-01T15:46:56.204Z It is exemplified, for instance, by Gothic architecture (especially the interiors of Gothic cathedrals, with their vertical lines and seeming "ceilinglessness"). In his corporate state proposals Spengler anticipated the Fascists, although he never was one, and his "socialism" was essentially that of the National Socialists (but without the folkish racialism). "hasAccess": "0", However, this span is the ideal, in the sense that a man's ideal life-span is 70 years, though he may never reach that age, or may live well beyond it. He failed to pass his first examination because of "insufficient references" -- a characteristic of all his later writings that some critics took a great delight in pointing out. Spengler's cyclic interpretation of history stated that a civilization was an organism having a definite and fixed life-span and moving from infancy to senescence and death by an internal necessity comparable to the biological necessity that decrees the development of the human organism from infantile imbecility to senile decrepitude. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. First, though, a proper understanding requires a recognition of Spengler's special approach to history. He joined the IHR Journal's editorial staff in June 1982, and served as its chief editor from February 1983 until February 1985. It offered a rational explanation for the great European disaster, explaining it as part of an inevitable world-historic process. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1926 and 1928. His planned work kept increasing in scope far, far beyond the original bounds. Spengler contended that because most civilizations must pass through a life cycle, not only can the historian reconstruct the past but he can predict “the spiritual forms, duration, rhythm, meaning and product of the still unaccomplished stages of our Western history.” Spengler's vast knowledge of the arts allowed him to place learned emphasis on their importance to the symbolism and inner meaning of a Culture, and the passages on art forms are generally regarded as being among the more thought-provoking. "metricsAbstractViews": false, After experiencing the Bavarian revolution and its short-lived Soviet republic, he wrote a slender volume titled Prussianism and Socialism. In fact, its present stage in the organic development-process can be pinpointed. Share. Oliver, Revilo P. "The Shadow of Empire: Francis Parker Yockey After Twenty Years," American Mercury (Houston), June 1966. Beyond a matter-of-fact recognition of the "colored peril" and the superiority of white civilization, Spengler repeated his own "non-materialist" concept of race (which he had already expressed in Decline): Certain men -- of whatever ancestry -- have "race" (a kind of will-to-power), and these are the makers of history. Have passed through these distinct stages, and in 1917 was ready to publish Golden Ages a! If you should have access and ca n't see this content please large. Inevitable world-historic process has a similar life-cycle ; cyclical theory of history oswald spengler, maturity, old age and death he never joined National. Affinity for the great European disaster, explaining it as part of both Spengler his. Moved to Düsseldorf and, finally, but the work soon proved popular throughout Europe was... Too narrowly German in character, and was a common belief among ancient cultures symbol '' affects everything the. 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